Complete Results @

Follow the left-panel link from '23nd Annual Snow Storm Contest > Verified Forecasts > ‘07-JAN-22’ to see the complete forecasters’ verification table by station


In the table ...

Yellow cells indicate the best score in category. 

Forecast STP cells:  yellow if within +/- 5% of observed STP.


Blue (Red) cells indicate the 25% (75%) percentile.


SUMSQ:  sum of square errors (measure of forecast accuracy accounting for magnitude and distribution of snowfall)

STP:  storm total precipitation

TAE:  total absolute error
AAE:  average absolute error


Final Standings - all Forecasters



Station by Station Comparison of Best Forecasts


Perfect Forecasts (Batting Average - Forecast Stations with No Error)


Best Station Forecasts (Batting Average - Forecast Stations with Lowest Absolute Error)


Best Station Forecast Busts (Batting Average - Forecast Stations with Highest Absolute Error)


Consensus forecast best @ HYA … PVD …ALB … BGM …ABE …BWI … DCA

MAX forecast best @ CON … BOS …JFK … MDT …IAD

MAX forecast less than observed @ BOS … BDR

MIN forecasts best @ PHL

MIN forecasts more than observed @



Strong correlation (R = 0.984) between SUMSQ and TAE Z-scores



A dashed Forecast trend line above (below) solid red Observed snowfall line ==> over (under) forecast

R2 value indicates how well the forecast captured the observed snowfall’s variability … i.e., R2 = 0.874 ==> the forecast captured ~87% of the observed snowfall’s variability.



Storm-total snowfalls for FRI  … 07-JAN-22 from CDUS41 (CLI) ... CXUS51 (CF6) ... METARs ... and PNS bulletins.

Excellent coverage and reporting.

STP estimated from one report within 2.2 SM of the station carried by BOSPNS. Station did not carry 6-and 7-group data.


SLR not reported for some stations with measurable snowfall b/c significant liquid and / or freezing precipitation also occurred during the verification period.

Stations observing >= Trace:  25 (93%)
Given stations with measurable snowfall ... stations observing at least:
4" - 14 (42%)
6" - 5 (19%)
8" - 2 (7%)

Max snow melt-water (minimum SLR 10:1)
ORH: 0.52"
BOS:  0.48"
BDL:  0.44"

Max precipitation (frozen + freezing + liquid):
ORH: 0.52"
BOS:  0.48"
BDL:  0.44"

New daily record(s)


Approximate storm-total snowfall courtesy NOHRSC


SFC analysis:  09z ... 07-JAN-22

Image courtesy DOC / NOAA / NWS / NCEP / WPC


Teleconnection time-series data courtesy CPC
Data for 1/6 and 1/7 not available.  Linear interpolation between 1/5 and 1/8



Upper air plots unavailable for 1/6 and 1/7

Closest time:  12z 05-JAN-22

Upper air charts courtesy University of WY

Neglected to collect satellite and radar imagery. 

Imagery courtesy George C. Marshall Space Flight Center Earth Science Branch

Radar imagery courtesy College of DuPage NEXLAB